Cookbook

FYI: Equivalents (2)

Sauces

White Sauce . . . . . . . . Liquid . . . . . . . . Thickening . . . . . . . . Fat . . . . . . . . Seasoning(Salt)

No. 1 Thin . . . . . . . . 1c milk . . . . . . . . 1 T flour . . . . . . . . 1 T . . . . . . . . 1/2 tsp
No. 2 Medium . . . . . . . . 1c milk . . . . . . . . 2 T flour . . . . . . . . 1-1/2 T . . . . . . . . 1/2 tsp
No. 3 . . . . . . . . 1c milk . . . . . . . . 3 T flour . . . . . . . . 2 Tbsp . . . . . . . . 1 tsp
No. 4 Thick . . . . . . . . 1c milk . . . . . . . . 4 T flour . . . . . . . . 2-1/2 T . . . . . . . . 1 tsp

Use: . . . . No 1 sauce for cream soups
. . . . . . . . No 2 sauce for creamed or scalloped dishes or gravy
. . . . . . . . No 3 sauce for souffles
. . . . . . . . No 4 sauce for croquettes

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Measures and Weights

1 cup butter or margarine = 1/2 lb
1 cup shredded cheddar cheese = 1/4 lb
1 cup eggs = 4-5 whole eggs or 8 egg whites or 12 egg yolks
1 cup all purpose flour = 1/4 lb
1 envelope of gelatin (unflavoured) = 1/4 oz or 1 Tbsp
1 cup of lard or solid vegetable fat = 1/2 lb
1 medium lemon (juice) = 1-1/2 fluid ounces (3 Tbsp)
1 cup chopped nut meats = 1/4 lb

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Time Chart for Meat, Poultry and Fish

Item . . . . . . . . Time (Min) per lb . . . . . . . . Oven Temp( F)

Beef, rare . . . . . . . . 18 - 20 . . . . . . . . 300-350
. . . . . . . . medium . . . . . . . . 22 - 25 . . . . . . . . 300-350
. . . . . . . . well done . . . . . . . . 27 - 30 . . . . . . . . 300-350
Pork, fresh . . . . . . . . 35 - 45 . . . . . . . . 300-350
. . . . . . . . cured, well done . . . . . . . . 20 - 35 . . . . . . . . 300-350
Ham, Smoked . . . . . . . . 25 - 30 . . . . . . . . 300-350
Lamb . . . . . . . . 30 - 35 . . . . . . . . 300-350
Veal . . . . . . . . 25 - 35 . . . . . . . . 300

All rolled roasts . . . . . . . . add 10 to 15 minutes per pound
Chicken . . . . . . . . 22 - 30 . . . . . . . . 325-350
Duck . . . . . . . . 20 - 25 . . . . . . . . 325-350
Goose . . . . . . . . 25 - 30 . . . . . . . . 325-350
Turkey, large . . . . . . . . 20 - 25 . . . . . . . . 275-300
. . . . . . . . small . . . . . . . . 15 - 25 . . . . . . . . 300-325

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To Stew Meat

Beef . . . . . . . . 40 to 60 min/lb
Lamb . . . . . . . . 20 min/lb
Veal . . . . . . . . 25 min/lb
Chicken . . . . . . . . 20 min/lb or more

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Amount per serving

Boneless Meats - 1 pound will serve 4 people (this includes ground, kidneys, liver sausage and canned meats
Small amounts of bone (Round steak, ham slice, pot roast, rib steaks) - 1 lb will serve 3 people
Large amounts of bone ( Most steaks, short ribs, neck chops, brisket) - 1 lb will serve 2 people.

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Oven Temp Chart

Slow . . . . . . . . 250 - 325 F
Moderate . . . . . . . . 325 - 375
Moderate Hot . . . . . . . . 375 - 425
Hot . . . . . . . . 425 - 450
Very Hot . . . . . . . . 450 - 475

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Baking Times

Breads . . . . . . . . Minutes . . . . . . . . Temp

Loaf . . . . . . . . 50-60 . . . . . . . . 350-400 F
Rolls . . . . . . . . 20-30 . . . . . . . . 400-450
Biscuits . . . . . . . . 12-15 . . . . . . . . 400-450
Muffins . . . . . . . . 20-25 . . . . . . . . 400-450
Popovers . . . . . . . . 30-40 . . . . . . . . 425-450
Corn Bread . . . . . . . . 25-30 . . . . . . . . 400-425
Nut Bread . . . . . . . . 50-75 . . . . . . . . 350
Gingerbread . . . . . . . . 40-50 . . . . . . . . 350-370

Cookies
Drop . . . . . . . . 10-15 . . . . . . . . 350-400
Rolled . . . . . . . . 8-12 . . . . . . . . 375-400
Ice Box . . . . . . . . 8-12 . . . . . . . . 375-400
Molasses . . . . . . . . 10-15 . . . . . . . . 350

Cookie dough that needs to be rolled, works much better if it has been chilled for 10 to 30 minutes.

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Proportions for Batters and Doughs

Liquid to Flour
Pour Batter - to 1 cup liquid use 1 cup flour
Drop Batter - to 1 cup liquid use 2 to 2-1/2 cups flour
Soft Dough - to 1 cup liquid use 3 to 3-1/2 cups flour
Stiff Dough - to 1 cup liquid use 4 cups flour

Flour to Baking powder
Biscuits to cup flour use 1-1/4 tsp Baking powder
Muffins to 1 cup flour use 1-1/2 tsp
Popovers to 1 cup flour use 1-1/4 tsp
Waffles to 1 cup flour use 1-1/4 tsp
Cake with fat to 1 cup flour use 1 tsp

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Baking Pies

Pumpkin . . . . . . . . 400 F . . . . . . . . 35-45 min
Two-Crust . . . . . . . . 400 . . . . . . . . 25-40
Shells . . . . . . . . 450 . . . . . . . . 10-12
Meringue . . . . . . . . 300 . . . . . . . . 10-15

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Approximate Equivalents or Substitutions in Baking and Cooking

1 tsp baking powder 1/4 tsp soda and 1/2 tsp cream of tartar
1 cup cake flour 7/8 cup or 1 cup less 2 Tbsp all purp flour
1 square chocolate 3 Tbsp cocoa plus 1-1/2 tsp fat (butter)
1 cup thin cream (18-20%) 7/8 cup milk plus 3 Tbsp fat
1 cup heavy cream (36-40%) 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup fat
1 cup sour or buttermilk 1 cup sweet milk plus 1 Tbsp lemon juice or vinegar
1-1/3 cup firm packed brown sugar 1 cup granulated sugar
1 lemon 3 to 4 Tbsp juice
Grated rind of 1 lemon 1-1/2 tsp juice
1 orange 6 to 8 Tbsp juice
12 to 14 egg yolks 1 cup
8 to 10 egg whites 1 cup
1 Tbsp corn starch 2 Tbsp flour (when thickening)
9 coarsely crumbled graham wafers 1 cup
11 finely crumbled graham wafers 1 cup
7 coarsely crumbled salt crackers 1 cup
9 finely crushed salt crackers 1 cup
1 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water 1 cup milk

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Rules for Whipping Cream

Chill the cream, bowl and beater in the refrigerator for at least 2 hours. Beat until it is fairly stiff.

If cream is beaten until it is warmer than 45 degrees (F), it will turn to butter.

Should cream start to turn buttery, whip in two or 3 more tablespoonfuls of cold milk.

If you wish the cream to keep stiff for a day or two, add one teaspoon gelatine soaked in one tablespoon cold water. Dissolve the gelatin over hot water; allow to cool to the consistency of egg whites before adding to the cream and whipping.

Use medium speed when whipping cream with an electric beater.

Cream, when whipped, almost doubles in bulk.

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Table for Dried Fruits

Fruit . . . . . . . . Cook Time . . . . . . . . Amt of Sugar or Honey

Apricots . . . . . . . . Approx 40 min . . . . . . . . 1/4 c. for ea c. of fruit
Figs . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . . 1 Tbsp /c. fruit
Peaches . . . . . . . . 45 . . . . . . . . 1/4 c. / c. fruit
Prunes . . . . . . . . 45 . . . . . . . . 2 Tbsp / c. fruit

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FYI: FOOD FACTS, EQUIVALENTS AND SUBSTITUTIONS #47

Foods that are hazardous to dogs...
FYI: Allspice Information
FYI: Boiled Water :lol :rectnt :photo *LINK*
FYI: Does Cooking Eggs Make them Safe
FYI: Equivalents (1)
FYI: Equivalents (2)
FYI: Equivalents (4)
FYI: Equivalents (5)
FYI: Equivalents 3(a)
FYI: Equivalents 3(b)
FYI: Freezing Information
FYI: Herb Substitutions
FYI: Ingredient Weight Chart from King Arthur Flour
FYI: Mix Oats into Meatloaf
FYI: Peppermint extract
FYI: Pineapple and Jell-O
FYI: Roast Chicken 101 *LINK*
FYI: Salad Glossary
FYI: Scoville Scale of Pepper Hotness *PIC*
FYI: Storing Mushrooms
FYI: Sugar Facts
FYI: Sweet and Natural -- Alternative Sweeteners
FYI: Sweet and Natural Alternatives: Agave Nectar *PIC*
FYI: Sweet and Natural Alternatives: Brown Rice Syrup *PIC*
FYI: Sweet and Natural Alternatives: Date Sugar *PIC*
FYI: Sweet and Natural Alternatives: Organic Granulated Sugar *PIC*
FYI: Sweet and Natural Alternatives: Palm Sugar
FYI: Sweet and Natural Alternatives: Stevia *PIC*
FYI: Sweet and Natural Alternatives: Xylitol *PIC*
FYI: Top Myths (and Truths) About Sugar
FYI: Yeast Equivalents