Cookbook

FYI: Equivalents (4)

Approximate Metric Equivalents by Volume

U.S. . . . . Metric
1/4 cup . . . . 60 milliliters
1/2 cup . . . . 120 milliliters
1 cup . . . . 230 milliliters
1 1/4 cups . . . . 300 milliliters
1 1/2 cups . . . . 360 milliliters
2 cups . . . . 460 milliliters
2 1/2 cups . . . . 600 milliliters
3 cups . . . . 700 milliliters
4 cups (1 quart) . . . . .95 liter
1.06 quarts . . . . 1 liter
4 quarts (1 gallon) . . . . 3.8 liters

Metric . . . . U.S.
50 milliliters . . . . .21 cup
100 milliliters . . . . .42 cup
150 milliliters . . . . .63 cup
200 milliliters . . . . .84 cup
250 milliliters . . . . 1.06 cups
1 liter . . . . 1.05 quarts

Approximate Metric Equivalents by Weight

U.S. . . . . Metric
1/4 ounce . . . . 7 grams
1/2 ounce . . . . 14 grams
1 ounce . . . . 28 grams
1 1/4 ounces . . . . 35 grams
1 1/2 ounces . . . . 40 grams
2 1/2 ounces . . . . 70 grams
4 ounces . . . . 112 grams
5 ounces . . . . 140 grams
8 ounces . . . . 228 grams
10 ounces . . . . 280 grams
15 ounces . . . . 425 grams
16 ounces (1 lb.) . . . . 454 grams

Metric . . . . U.S.
1 gram . . . . .035 ounce
50 grams . . . . 1.75 ounces
100 grams . . . . 3.5 ounces
250 grams . . . . 8.75 ounces
500 grams . . . . 1.1 pounds
1 kilogram . . . . 2.2 pounds

Approximate Metric Equivalents by Length

U.S. . . . . Metric
1/4 inch . . . . .6 centimeters
1 inch . . . . 2.5 centimeters
2 inches . . . . 5.08 centimeters
4 inches . . . . 10.16 centimeters
5 inches . . . . 13 centimeters
6 inches . . . . 15.24 centimeters
12 inches . . . . 30.48 centimeters
36 inches . . . . 91.44 centimeters

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MEASUREMENTS AND SUBSTITUTIONS
{American}

3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon
4 tablespoons = 1/4 cup
8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup
16 tablespoons = 1 cup
1 cup = 8 fluid ounces
2 cups = 1 pint
4 cups = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon [liquid]
8 quarts = 1 peck [dry]
16 ounces = 1 pound

For accurate measuring, use a set of standard measuring spoons and a standard measuring cup. All measurements are level.

INGREDIENTS CALLED FOR SUBSTITUTION

1 cup self-rising flour = 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 teaspoon baking or powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup cake flour = 1 cup all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons
1 teaspoon baking powder = 1/2 teaspoon crean of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon soda
1 tablespoon cornstarch or arrowroot = 2 tablespons all-purpose flour
1 tablespoon tapioca = 1 1/2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
1 whole egg = 2 egg yolks plus 1 tablespoon water
1 cup commerical sour cream = 1 tablespoon lemon juice plus evaporated milk to equal 1 cup; or 3 tablespoons butter plus 7/8 cup sour milk
1 cup yogurt = 1 cup buttermilk or sour milk
1 cup sour milk or buttermilk = 1 teaspoon vinegar or lemon juice plus sweet milk to equal 1 cup
1 cup honey = 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid
1 ounce unsweetened chocolate = 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or margarine
1 clove fresh garlic = 1 teaspoon garlic salt or 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
1 teaspoon onion powder = 2 teaspoons minced onion
1 tablespoon fresh herbs = 1 teaspoon ground or crushed dry herbs
1 pound fresh mushrooms = 6 ounces canned mushrooms

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Measures and Weights

1 cup butter or margarine = 1/2 lb
1 cup shredded cheddar cheese = 1/4 lb
1 cup eggs = 4-5 whole eggs or 8 egg whites or 12 egg yolks
1 cup all purpose flour = 1/4 lb
1 envelope of gelatin (unflavoured) = 1/4 oz or 1 Tbsp
1 cup of lard or solid vegetable fat = 1/2 lb
1 medium lemon (juice) = 1-1/2 fluid ounces (3 Tbsp)
1 cup chopped nut meats = 1/4 lb

Approximate Equivalents or Substitutions in Baking and Cooking

1 tsp baking powder = 1/4 tsp soda and 1/2 tsp cream of tartar
1 cup cake flour = 7/8 cup or 1 cup less 2 Tbsp all purp flour
1 square chocolate = 3 Tbsp cocoa plus 1-1/2 tsp fat (butter)
1 cup thin cream (18-20%) = 7/8 cup milk plus 3 Tbsp fat
1 cup heavy cream (36-40%) = 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup fat
1 cup sour or buttermilk = 1 c sweet milk + 1 T lemon juice or vinegar
1-1/3 cup firm packed brown sugar = 1 cup granulated sugar
1 lemon = 3 to 4 Tbsp juice
Grated rind of 1 lemon = 1-1/2 tsp juice
1 orange = 6 to 8 Tbsp juice
12 to 14 egg yolks = 1 cup
8 to 10 egg whites = 1 cup
1 Tbsp corn starch = 2 Tbsp flour (when thickening)
9 coarsely crumbled graham wafers = 1 cup
11 finely crumbled graham wafers = 1 cup
7 coarsely crumbled salt crackers = 1 cup
9 finely crushed salt crackers = 1 cup
1 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water = 1 cup milk

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FYI: FOOD FACTS, EQUIVALENTS AND SUBSTITUTIONS #47

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