Salad Glossary Items: U. S. Only
all-purpose flour: A mixture of high gluten and low gluten wheat flours, the most commonly used flour in the United States. May be bleached or unbleached.
apple: A member of the Rose family, this highly versatile fruit generally has crisp flesh and a thin skin. Apples range in color, texture and sugar content. They have also been cultivated for over 3000 years and there are more then 7500 varieties. They are used for both sweet and savory dishes and a large variety of cooking techniques are used on them. Apples are grown globally, and are always available. Some common varieties are; Braeburn, Fuji, Gala, Jonathan, Red Delicious, Golden Delicious and Winesap.
brown sugar: Brown sugar is a fine white sugar that has been flavored with cane molasses. Two varieties are common: light brown sugar has a mellow butterscotch flavor, dark brown sugar has a more robust molasses flavor.
bulgur: Wheat kernel that have been steam, dried and crushed. It is very common in Middle Eastern dishes and makes a wonderful pilaf. You can use as you would rice or couscous.
butter: Fat that has been removed from cow's milk. In the U.S. butter must contain more than 80% milkfat. Butter is available salted or unsalted. Whipped butter has had air added to make it softer and easier to spread, but should not be substituted directly with regular butter. In the U.S. butter is packaged in sticks which weigh 4 U.S. oz. and contain 8 U.S. tablespoons (1/2 U.S. cup).
butterhead lettuces: These have loosely packed heads of soft delicate leaves that have an almost melt-in-your mouth texture. Two favorite examples are Bibb and Boston. Their tender leaves make a perfect foil for light dressings and vinaigrettes.
buttermilk: A thick tangy type of milk that was originally the liquid left over after making butter. It is now widely available in most areas. You can substitute 2/3 cup plain low or nonfat yogurt plus 1/3 cup whole or low-fat milk for each cup of buttermilk.
coleslaw: A salad of Dutch origins. It mainly consists of shredded cabbage with a vinaigrette or mayonnaise dressing. It sometimes contains other vegetables like, carrots, onions, peppers, pickles, etc.
couscous: Granular little pearls of pasta made from semolina. It is a staple in North African cuisine. You can purchase couscous in Middle Eastern, health food stores and most grocery stores.
crab: This crusteacean of the suborder Brachyura has a wide flat body. The meat is found in the mid section, tail, and larger claws.
cream: The fatty part of milk. Varieties available in the U.S. include: Half and half (10.5 -18% milkfat), light cream (18 - 30% milkfat), light whipping cream (30 - 36% milkfat, and heavy cream (more than 36% milkfat).
cream cheese: Soft, white, unripened cheese made from cow's milk and cream.
crouton: Small pieces of bread that have been toasted. Often times they are flavored with herbs, spices and oils or butter. They are used as topping for salads and sometimes for soups.
English cucumber: A long narrow cucumber, with a thin skin. It is virtually seedless and sometimes known as a hothouse cucumber.
half-and-half: Cream that contains 10.5 to 18% milkfat.
heavy cream: Cream that contains more than 36% milkfat.
leaf lettuces: These lettuces often have crinkled leaves that do not form a heart. Some common types are green leaf, red leaf and Lollo Rosa. The beautiful leaves of the lettuces add a unique texture to green salads. They are best served with light dressings and vinaigrettes.
macaroni: Pasta made from semolina and water, and formed into a variety of shapes, usually short and hollow.
margarine: Solid cooking fat invented as a butter substitute. Made from vegetable oils,flavorings, and emusifiers, In the U.S. margarine must contain 80% oil, products with less oil are often called "spreads".
marinate: To tenderize and flavor foods by soaking them in an acid and/or oil mixture.
mesclun: A mixture of several different types of lettuces and greens, many of the varieties being baby greens.
pasta: An unleavened dough cut into any of a variety of shapes. Usually served with a sauce.
Romaine lettuce: Also know as cos lettuce, this variety of lettuce has an elongated head of loosely packed leaves. The crisp leaves are dark green in color and are considered one of the more nutritious types of lettuce. Romaine lettuce is the lettuce typically used in Caesar salad.
shrimp: This term refers to the members of several related crustacean genera including Peneaus and Crangon. Shrimp have a thin segmented shell covering a tapering body, and a large head about the size of the body. They are available fresh or frozen year round.
soy sauce: A salty, fermented liquid made from soy beans and wheat or barley.
Sweet Potato: A tuber belonging to the morning glory family. These sweet and healthy vegetables orginated in South America. In the U.S. they are sometimes known as yams.
tahini: A thick paste made from ground sesame seeds.
tamari: A rich, dark type of soy sauce. It is wheat free and it is a byproduct of the miso-making process.
tofu: A high protein, easily digestible curd made from cooked soybeans and sometimes grains. It's somewhat bland flavor makes it extremely versatile as it tends to take on the flavors of the food it is cooked with. It comes in soft, firm and extra-firm styles. You can also purchase it marinated, smoked, and baked. It is readily available in health food stores, Asian food stores, and grocery stores.
vinaigrette: A vinegar and oil emulsion that can be used as a sauce for salads, meats, vegtables and fruits. In its most basic form it is simply oil, vinegar and salt and pepper. More elaborate vinaigrettes can contain herbs, spices, fruit, onions, etc. One of its most common uses is a dressing for salads.
white sugar: Also known as granulated sugar or table sugar.
yogurt: A creamy-textured, cultured milk product with a tangy taste.
zest: The brightly colored part of the peel of citrus fruits. It's used to flavor many different baked goods and dishes.